Located on Bulgaria's Black Sea coast, with the popular resorts of Golden Sands to the north and Sunny Beach to the south, the city of Varna has natural assets aplenty. Come the summer months, Varna transforms into a party hub, and the beach becomes the city's playground.
Varna Archaeological Museum
The earliest traces of human presence in the Varna region date back to the Early Paleolithic Age (about 100 000 BC). In the museum exposition Middle Paleolithic flint tools illustrate the period, found mostly during the construction of plants in the valley of river Devnia. Other flint tools and artifacts represent the Late Paleolithic ages, found during excavations in the locality Pobitite kamani.
The so-called Little Cave, near the village of Beloslav is studied as well as flint tools have been found bones of animals, hunted by people back in the ages. Mesolithic age findings have important place in regional history, especially those found in the locality Pobitite kamani near Varna – the only archaeological site dating back to Middle Paleolithic Age (about 10,000–7,000 BC) on Bulgarian territory.
These artifacts are flint microliths – testimony that man was well aware of tool parts, produced of small flint pieces and other material – wood, bones et other. Some flint pieces have been used as arrows tops. During the Chalcolithic Age (5th millennium BC) local populations enter into new stage of development, due to mastering metallurgy of copper and gold, as well as increased commercial contacts with neighbors both north and south and use of maritime routes on the seashore as transportation routes.The Chalcolithic Age is studied in Varna territory on several sites.
From the Early Chalcolithic Age (first half of the 5th millennium BC) date housing layers of inhabited areas near the villages Golyamo Delchevo and Sava, both represented in the museum exposition by tools made of stone, bones and horns, as well as clay and bone made anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures, as well as several ceramic utensils with cut-in lines.
The Middle Chalcolithic Age (4500–4000 BC) is illustrated by findings from the settlement near Suvorovo, the settlement in the locality “Batareyata” near Vinitsa, from settlements near the villages of Levski, Golyamo Delchevo and Sava. Among the ceramics findings dated this age are found many hollow stands in form of four angled parallel piped, standing on high legs bowls with bended outside edges and many similar. Most often stamped ornaments decorate the utensils, applied by seals made of mussels with broken angles.
Specific place have three tombs excavated in the north shore of the Varna lake and containing valuable artifacts about first social differentiation among local populace. In one of these tombs have been found about 1 000 objects, among which 31 golden pieces of necklace, representing the oldest worked gold pieces on earth up to present day.
However, the most important monument excavated from this age is the world-famous Chalcolithic Necropolis – Varna, exhibited in three separate museum exposition halls. It has been accidentally found during construction works in western industrial zone – Varna in 1972 and soon turned into sensational scientific discovery with break-through importance well over the borders of prehistory of contemporary Bulgarian territory. The studies completed until now (excavations are still not completed – about 30% of estimated necropolis area are still not excavated) have discovered 294 tombs. In 57 tombs there is no human skeleton and only three contain the largest part of gold objects and the best other findings.