At the end of the 17th century much of the Pest Area Budapest was in ruins and few residents remained. Within the next few decades, however, new residential districts appeared, which are today's mid-town suburbs. In the 19th century, redevelopment schemes introduced grand houses and apartment blocks, some with shops and cafe's, as well as secular and municipal buildings. Perhaps the most prominent example of this work is the Hungarian National Museum. At this time the Pest Area Budapest surpassed Buda as a center for trade and industry. This was partly due to the area's Jewish community, who played an active role in its development.
Pest County Hall
The Pest County Hall (Pest Megyei Önkormányzat), built in several stages, is one of Pest's most beautiful. monumental Neo-Classical civic buildings. Erected during the 19th century, it was part of the plan for the city drawn up by the Embellishment Commission.
A seat of the Council of Pest has existed on this site since the end of the 17th century. By 1811, however, the building included two conference halls, a prison and a prison chapel. In 1829-1832, a wing designed by József Hofrichter was added on Semmeweis ucta, used to accommodate council employees. Another redevelopment programme started in 1838, this time employing designs by Mátyás Zitterbarth Jr.
He was a highly regarded exponent of Neo-classical architecture. Completed in 1842, it included an impressive façade, which overlooks Városház ucta. This features a portico with six Corinthian columns supporting a prominent tympanum.
Pest County Hall destroyed and rebuilt
Pest County Hall was destroyed in the course of World War II. During postwar rebuilding it enlarged, adding three internal courtyards, the first surrounded by atmospheric cloisters. Due to the excellent acoustics, concerts are often held here during the summer.
Between Pest County Hall and the Municipal Council Offices building, in the small Kamermayer Károly tér, there is a monument to the first mayor of Budapest. Károly Kamermayer (1829-1897) took office in 1873, after the unification of Óbuda, Buda and Pest. Béla Szabados designed the aluminium monument.
Turkish Bank Pest Area Budapest
The building of the Turkish Bank (Török Bankház) dates from 1906 and is a design of Henrik Böhm and Ármin Hegedüs. It formerly housed the Turkish Bank and is a wonderful example of the Secession style. The exterior used modern construction methods to create the glass façade, set in reinforced concrete.
Above the fenestration, in the gable, is a magnificent colorful mosaic by Miksa Róth. Entitled Glory to Hungary. It depicts Hungary paying homage to the Virgin Mary, or Patrona Hungariae. Angels and shepherds surround the Hungarian political heroes, such as Prince Ferenc Rákóczi, István Széchenyi and Lajos Kossuth.
|Address||Szervita tér 3, Budapest|
Serbian Church Pest
Serbs settled in the now largely residential area around the Serbian Church (Szerb Templon) as early as the 16th century. The end of the 17th century brought a new wave of Serb immigrants, and by the early 19th century Serbs comprised almost 25% of Pest's home-owners. In 1698, the Serb community replaced an earlier church on the site with this Baroque one.
Architecture of the Serbian Church
The church gained its last appearance after a rebuilding project that lasted until the mid-18th century, which was probably undertaken by András Meyerhoffer. Arrangement of the interior of the church is according to Greek Orthodox practice. A part of the nave, which is entered from the vestibule, is reserved for woman. The area is divided from the men's section by a partition, and the division is further emphasized by the 30 centimeters (1 ft.) lowered floor. An iconostasis encloses the choir gallery and divides it from the sanctuary. The iconostasis dates from around 1850. The carving is by the Serb sculptor Miahai Janich and the Italian Renaissance-influenced paintings are the work of the Greek artist Károly Sterio.
|Address||Szerb utca 2-4, Budapest|
Lutheran Church Pest Area Budapest
Mihály Pollack designed the Neo-Classical Lutheran Church (Evangélikus Templom), built between 1799-1808. József Hild added a portico, which features a tympanum supported by Doric columns to the façade in 1856. The church's simplicity is typical of early Neo-Classicism.
It also reflects the notion of minimal church decoration, which was upheld by this branch of Protestantism. Above the modest main altar is a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration by Franz Sales Lochbihler, made in 1811. Organ recitals are often held in the church. which has excellent acoustics. Another Neo-Classical building by Mihály Pollack adjoined the church.
Constructed as a Lutheran school, it is now the National Lutheran Museum. The museum illustrates the history of the Reformation in Hungary, with the most interesting pieces on show being a copy of martin Luther's last will and testament. The original document, dating from 1542, is held in the Lutheran Archives.
|Address||Deák tér 4, Budapest|
University Chuch Central Pest
The single-nave University Church (Egyetemi Templon) is considered one of the most impressive Baroque churches in Budapest. It was built for the Pauline Order in 1725 - 1742, and was probably designed by András Meyerhoffer. The tower emerged in 1771. The Pauline Order, founded in 1263 by Canon Euzebiusz, was the only religious order to be founded in Hungary.
The magnificent exterior features a tympanum and a row of pilasters that divide the façade. Figures of St. Paul and St. Anthony flank the emblem of the Pauline Order, which crowns the exterior.
Inside the University Church
Inside the church a row of side chapels stand behind unusual marble pilasters. In 1776 Johann Bergl painted the vaulted ceiling with frescoes depicting scenes from the life of Mary. The main altar dates from 1746, and the carved statues behind it are the work of Jószef Hebenstreit.
Above it is a copy of the painting The Black Madonna of Czestochowa, which is thought to date from 1720. Much of the Baroque interior detail of the church is the work of the Pauline monks, such as the balustrade of the organ loft, the confessionals and the carved pulpit on the right.
|Address||Papnövelde utca 9, Budapest|
New York Palace Pest Area Budapest
The New York Palace (New York Palota) was built between 1890 and 1895 to a design by the architect Alajos Hauszmann. The building was initially the offices of an American insurance firm. This five-floor edifice displays an eclectic mix of Neo-Baroque and Secession motifs. The decorative sculptures that animate the façade are the work of Károly Senyei.
On the ground floor is the renowned New York Café. The beautiful, richly gilded Neo-Baroque interior, with its chandeliers and marble pillars, now attracts tourists, just as it once attracted the literary and artistic circles in its heyday. Following refurbishment, the hotel reopened in 2006 with 107 rooms.
|Address||Erzsébet krt. 9, Budapest|
Hungarian National Museum Budapest
The Hungarian National Museum is the country's richest source of art and artifacts on its own turbulent history. Founded in 1802, the museum owes its existence to Count Ferenc Széchényi, who offered his collection of coins, books, and documents to the nation. The museum's constantly expanding collection of art and documents are on exhibition in an impressive Neo-Classical edifice built by Mihály Pollack.
The steps of the Hungarian National Museum were the scene of a major event in Hungary's history. It was from these steps that, in 1848, the poet Sándor Petöfi first read his National Song, which sparked the uprising against Habsburg rule.
Built between 1837-1847, according to a design by Mihály Pollack, this imposing Neo-Classical building is one of the finest manifestations of that architectural epoch. The façade has a monumental portico, which has crowned tympanum designed by Raffael Ponti. The composition depicts the figure of Pannonia among personifications of the arts and sciences. In the garden surrounding the museum there are a number of statues.
These are of prominent figures from the spheres of literature, science and art. A monument to the poet János Arany, author of the Toldi Trilogy, stands in front of the main entrance. This bronze and limestone work dates from 1893 and is by Alajos Stróbl. The notable features of the interior include the magnificent paintings by Mót Than and Károly Lotz in the main staircase.
One of the most important Hungarian treasures, the Coronation Mantle, is on display in separate hall of its own in the museum. Made of Byzantine silk, it was originally donated to the church by St. Stephen in 1031. The magnificent gown was then refashioned in the 13th century. The now much faded cloth features an intricate embroidered design of fine gold thread and pearls.
Remarkably, th royal insignia, which includes a scepter and golden crown, have survived Hungary's dramatic history. Discovered by the American forces during World War II, they were removed and stored in Fort Knox before being returned to Hungary in 1978. In 2000, these other treasures of the royal insignia were transferred to the Domed Hall of Parliament, where they can also be visited.
The exhibition begins in the Árpád era and features one of the museum's most valuable exhibits, the crown of Constantine IX Monomachus, decorated with enamel work. Also on display in this section are the funeral decorations of Béla III, Romanesque sacred vessels, weapons and an interesting collection of coins.
The period of Angevin rule coincided with the birth of the Gothic style, represented here by some excellent examples of gold work. The next 2 halls explore the reign of Sigismund of Luxembourg and the achievements of János Hunyadi. On display here are copies of portraits of King Sigismund by Albrecht Dürer and a richly decorated ceremonial saddle.
There are also several platinum and gold pieces, illuminated manuscripts and documents.
This part of the museum covers Habsburg rule, a period of great civil unrest. Thngarian e exhibition begins with artifacts connected to the Rákóczi insurrection of 1703-17011. Weapons, as well as furniture from Ferenc II Rákóczi's palace, are exhibited here. One item of particular interest is the armchair produced by Rákóczi himself. The next hall is dedicated to 18th century Hungarian art and culture.
The following rooms portray the Hungarian history of the first half of the 19th century. Artworks, including magnificent portraits and historic paintings, such as "Placing the Cornerstone of the Chain Bridge", are assembled along with important documents and memoirs from that time.